The most frequent aspect (60 in 80 % of the primitive cancers in adults) is an epithelial tumor: the kidney clear cells adenocarcinoma, still called Grawitz tumor or renal cell carcinoma or nephrocarcinoma. These tumors are bilateral in 15 % of the cases.
Tubulo-papillairy tumors represent 10 to 15 % of kidney cancers.
They are often multifocus tumors and bilateral in 40 % of the cases, but their speed of evolution is less important than that from clear cells adenocarcinoma.
Other rarer varieties have variable prognosis according to their histological types,we shall later discuss oncocytome ; a tumor with limited malignancy for which a therapeutic abstention coupled with surveillance is the general mode of treatment if the diagnosis is certain after Imaging.
The kidney cancer is in terms of frequency the third tumor affecting the reproductive and urinary organs after prostate and bladder cancers, and it represents 2 % of the cancers in adults, and also 2 % of the causes of death by cancer in France where we find 8500 new cases each year.
But the frequency of occurrence of this cancer appears to have significantly increased during these last years.
Men are more often affected than women (2 men for a single woman) and the average age of the diagnosis is 62 years.